In its collection there about 30 thousand of plants from all over the world. Located on the southern coast of the Crimea between the village of Nikita and the Black Sea. Six kilometers from Yalta there is a wonderful corner of the Crimea, the green treasury of the country - Nikita Botanical Garden.
Here are brought together the representatives of all the plant world of subtropical regions of the Earth. This is one of the oldest research institutions. The garden was established in 1812 near the village of Nikita - hence the name of it.
On June, 10th, 1811, at active participation of the known scientist-botany of M.Bibershtejn, in Petersburg the “Decree about establishment in Crimea the Imperial state botanical garden” was signed. The same year 375 dessiatinas of the earth were bought from a landowner Smirnov. M.Bibershtejn offered the post of the garden director to his assistant, 30-year-old scientist H.H.Steven.
In September, 1812 the first plantings were made. So the beginning was put to a modern State Nikitsky botanical garden. For 14 years of tireless activity H.H.Steven nicknamed subsequently "Nestor of Russian botanists", collected more than 450 kinds of exotic plants.
Now the alive collection of the garden has got 30 thousand species, hybrids and varieties of plants of almost all countries of the world. The Californian oak (in our country it doesn't meet anywhere else) grows in the Bottom park of the garden, and in Seaside there are the most thermophilic trees and bushes: a myrtle, a feijoa, an orchideous tree, a chamaerops (a dwarfish palm tree). There is in the Nikitsky garden the Aleppo pine, Numidian (Algerian) fir, the Quercus aglifolia (Californian oak) and the cypress Arizonian, the Eastern juniper and a unique copy in the Nikitsky garden of "an iron tree" - the Persian parottiya. The tree reaches 6 m of height, has a crone from wide oval leaves which accept pink-orange coloring in the autumn.
Numerous diplomas and medals mark successes of the Nikitsky garden. On the anniversary medal which have been let out by century, it is traced: "Per scietiam ad vitam" - "to serve as the Science lives" (an armor.). Its activity on the international inserts in Austria, the USA, Belgium is highly appreciated. For the good results reached in the field of fruit growing, the Nikitsky botanical garden it is awarded in Erfurt in 1961 by an honourable prize, 13 gold and one silver medal.
Pride of the Nikita Botanical Garden is Dendrological Park, where are over 1,700 varieties and forms of tree and shrub species collected from all over the world. The park is planted over 600 forms and varieties of flowers and about 250 kinds of hot-house plants.
At the sea the world's largest high-quality collection of roses in which is about 1.600 domestic and overseas grades took place. Here are grown up the fan-leaved Chinese palm trees which are cultivated in the garden since 1860 and since then they are extended on all Southern coast of Crimea. About 160 years ago the Italian pine (stone pine) and the Lebanese cedar were planted here. These representatives of coniferous breeds were brought to the garden the first one from the Mediterranean, the second one from Asia Minor mountains. If to go downwards from here on a stone ladder, to the right it is possible to see the rocky hill located against gray cedars delivered here from Atlassky mountains.
On the hill high and low yuccas, prickly prickly pears, newcomers from desert regions Northern and Central America grow. In total on the Earth is available about 600 kinds of a bamboo, 16 most cold-resistant kinds grow in the Nikitsky garden. Not far from bamboo thickets branches of a yew berry were stretched. This representative of once existing here wood is "elderly" enough – it is more than 530 years old. Here it is possible to see the largest tree of the Nikitsky garden - a sequoia huge, or the Mammoth’s tree. Its height is more than 35 meters, diameter of 1,6 meters, though it is only 110 years.
Dendrology collection of a garden know far outside of Russia and Ukraine. Over 400 scientific institutions from 48 countries keep up constant correspondence with the Crimean scientists. Annually with the richest collection of the Nikitsky botanical garden get acquainted over 300 thousand tourists.
The property garden includes several parks: the Lower, the Upper, Seaside Park and Cape Montodor. Clusters of these parks are not connected.
The oldest part of the Nikita Botanical Garden is the Lower Park, embodied in the landscape style, by the founder of the garden Steven.
The entrance to the park is framed by high green wall of stone oak, simulating the fortress fort with oval teeth and buttresses.
At the breakdown of the Bottom park they aspired to a grouping of landings from homogeneous breeds. So, in 1820-1823 the grove from a pith oak, a bit later - groves of the Lebanese cedar, a magnolia, noble laurels has been put. In the Bottom park there are many valuable foreign breeds. Evergreen wide-leaved plants, palm trees and bamboos give exotic character to this cozy park. The fine view to the coast opens from the pavilion built in a southern part of the park. Construction is a copy of park pavilion of the Mihajlovsky palace in St.-Petersburg, constructed there in 1819. On the northern slope of the park the pool in the form of the original cascade is built.
The attraction of the park is a multi-stemmed tree of wild phistachio, which is more than 1,000 years.
The Upper Park is relatively quiet part of the slope in the central part of the garden.
It was based in the middle of last century. In developing the plan involved the famous park archetect Arnold Regel. The park was constructed for "recreational purposes".
On a place of a summer residence destroyed by earthquake of 1927 of the imperial minister now rosarium is planted. The original architectural ensemble including a two-storeyed building of management of a garden, an orchestra, pool and the summer theater decorated with a majestic colonnade and a pergola is placed with northern input in park. Numerous paths of the park are framed by a border from honeysuckles, lavenders, wistarias; retaining walls and the pergola are decorated by the green cascade of the Chinese and curling rose.
The Seaside Park was founded over eighty years ago. The southern part of the garden, sheltered from cold north and north-easterly winds by Cape Marian, is suitable for planting heat-loving plants.
The park is planted with many plants, previously grown only in the greenhouse. Rare plants of Japan, China and the Mediterranean give a special charm to the park.
On both sides of Seaside Park are two more interesting objects of Nikita Botanical Garden. In the east is Reserve "Cape Marian," which remains the most valuable corner of the background of sub-Mediterranean forests, which grow in the pristine conditions of rare trees, shrubs and grasses - a total of 500 species - and all this wealth on 120 acres of protected land. The reserve is a natural laboratory for scientists of the garden, so for massive tour it is closed.
The Park on Cape Montedor located to the west of Seaside Park, close to Yalta, where with native species are - oak, fluffy, high juniper - grows a number of relict conifer Exotics: many species of pine trees from around the world, metasekvoyya with a gentle, falling to the ground in winter, needles.